НазваниеA study on Multiplication and Utilization of Insects Pollinating Horticultural Crops
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Translation: heading only


Lighting hour

Number of insects for experiment

Number of days

Number of survivors

% of the survivors

Number of emergents

% of emergents


Table 78 (p. 84)

The relative survival of larvae kept in refrigerator for different length of days

Translation: heading only


Rearing starting date

Starting date in refrigerator

0°C

Number of insects in refrigerator

Coming out date from the fridge

Days in fridge

Number of surviving larvae

Number of pupae

% of survivors


Table 79 (p.84)

The number of eggs (cluster) laid by Eristalis cerealis FABRICIUS in each ten days of the month throughout a year

Translation: heading only

Each

10 days

Month

First 10 days of the month

Second 10 days

The last 10 days

Total

(Cluster)

Number of eggs

(Cluster)

Number of eggs

(Cluster)

Number of eggs

(Cluster)


Table 80 (p.85)

The number of eggs (cluster) laid by Eristalis cerealis FABRICIUS throughout a year

Translation: see in the text.

Table 81 (p. 85)

The food combination for rearing the larvae of Eristalis cerealis FABRICIUS

Translation: see in the text.
Chapter 4

Experiment for the utilization of Eristalis cerealis FABRICIUS

Section 1

The effect of utilization in apple orchard
Figure 37 (p.90)

Environment surrounding orchard where Eristalis cerealis FABRICIUS released in Kawaguchi city Iwate prefecture

Experiment area: 20a

They also chose 3 non-released orchards according to the distance and researched.

Translation: see in the text.

Figure 38 (p.90)

The variety of apple trees and their positions in the orchard where Eristalis cerealis FABRICIUS released

Translation: see in the text.

Table 82 (p.91)

Conditions in different releasing areas

Area A: Nito city, B: Morioka city, C: Mizusawa city

Area

Variety

Age of tree

Artificial pollination

Year

Size of area

Number of released insects per 10a

Released date

Released time

The condition of central flowers when released

Weather on released time

Wind speed

Temperature

°C

Way of transporting

A (north of prefecture)

Starking

Delicious

23
24


No
No



















Cloudy

Fine








Car
Car


C (South of prefecture)

Jonathan

18
19

20
21

No
No

No
No



















Very fine

Fine

Cludy

Fine







Car
Car

Car
Car



Table 83 (p.91)

Research condition of the above experiment (table 82)

Condit ion


Area

Released orchard

Non released orchard (comparison)

Year

Number of varieties

Research date

Number of trees per a variety

Number of cluster of flowers per a variety

Number of researched orchard

Number of varieties researched

Tree age

Artificial pollination

Research date

A (North of prefecture)

1972
1973
1974






















No
No
No





C (South of prefecture

1972

1973

1974

1975






















No

No

No

No







Figure 39 (The environment of Eristalis cerealis FABRICIUS released in orchards {north of prefecture}) (p.92), Figure 40{Centre of prefecture} (p.92) and Figure 41 {South of prefecture} (p.93)

See translation in the text.


Table 84 (p.94)

The pollinating ability of Eristalis cerealis FABRICIUS according to the removal of stamens from the central flowers of apples (Starking Delicious 8 years old)

Experiment held on 29th May.

Experime

nt

Area

Number of flowers for pollination (American summer peamain)

Number of clusters for experiment

Number of central flowers for experiment

Number of fruits from central flowers

% of fruits from central flowers

Number of side flowers

% of fruits from side flowers

% of fruits from the cluster

Relese F5

M5


























Area protected from insects*

























Area protected from insects: We removed stamens from central flowers before blossoming, covered with nets and released Eristalis cerealis FABRICIUS when blossoming started.
Table 85 (p.94)

The effect of fruition by 3 different visitors (artificially raised insects)

Variety for experiment: Adult tree of Jonathan covered with lawn gauze(No.200) on 10th May

Examined on 1st June: fully blossomed

*American Summer Pearmain

Experi

ment

Area

Species

After release

Number of clusters for pollination *

Number of clusters

Number of flowers from the clusters

Number of flowers which had fruits

Number of clusters which had fruits

Number of central flowers which had fruits

Eristalis cerealis FABRICIUS






















Natural state






















Table 86 (p.94)

The effect of fruition by releasing the different number of Eristalis cerealis FABRICIUS

(Variety for experiment: Ralls adult tree covered with lawn gauze on 8th May

Examined date: 29th May, full bloom )



Experiment

Number

of

insects released

Cluster of flowers for pollination

Cluster of flowers for experiment

Number of flowers from the clusters

Number of central flowers

Number of fruits from central flowers

Number of side flowers

Number of fruits from side flowers

1























Natural state
























Figure 42

The relationship between fruition of central flowers and number of Eristalis cerealis FABRICIUS released

Figure 43 (% of insects re-captured from different directions) (p.95)

See translation in the text.
Figure 44 (p.96)

The condition of the fruition of Jonathan central flower according to the position of trees

See translation in the text.
Table 87 (p. 97)

The rate of fruition of central flowers of Jonathan apples in different years

Year

Research


Non- release


*

1966 1967 1968 1969 1970

1971

Total number of flowers examined







Average % of fruition of central flowers of 3 trees







*released year

Table 88 (p.97)

The activity of visitors

Year

Orchard

1970 (18th May)

1970 (21st May)

Released orchard

Andrena sp 1

Propylaea guatuordecimpuctata japonica THUNBERG 1

Eristalis cerealis FABRICIUS 8

Eristalomyia tenax LINNE

1

Apis mellifera LINNE 2

Comparison orchard A

Eristalis cerealis FABRICIUS 1

Andrena sp 1

Eristalis cerealis FABRICIUS 1

Bibio yufiventrix DUDA

2

Hylemyia platura MEIGEN

1

Released orchard in 1970: 9-10 a.m. Comparison orchard 12-1 p.m.

Released orchard in 1971: 9-10 a.m. Comparison orchard 12-1 p.m.


Table 89 (p.97)

Weather from the latter third of April to May (Morioka Meteorological Observatory in 1971)

Date
Temperature

April

May

25 26 27 28 29 30

1 2 3 4

Average temperature








Minimum temperature







Table 90(p.98)

The effect on pollination of releasing Eristalis cerealis FABRICIUS

Research

Area

Variety

Examined trees

Examined clusters of flower

Number of central flower

Number of side flower

% of fruition of central flower

% of fruition of side flower

% of fruition of cluster of flowers

% of fruition

Released orchard

Jonathan

Star King Delicious


























Non- released

orchard

A
B

C

Jonathan
Star King Delicious
Jonathan

Jonathan


























Table 91 (p.98)

The rate (%) of pips in fruits compared with expected number of pips in fruits

Position of fruit

Research

Area

Variety

Examined trees

Number of fruits examined

Expected number of pips in fruits

Number of pips in fruits

% of fruition of the number of pips in fruits (?)


Central fruit

Released orchard



















Non released orchard

A

B

C


Side fruit

Non-released orchard



















Non-released orchard

A

B

C


Table 92 (p.99)

The activity of visitors before releasing (Prefecture north: A)

Year

Collecting hour

Species and number

1971

1- 2p.m.


Calliphora lata COQUILLETT 1

Epistrophe balteata DEGEER 1

Hylemyia platura MEIGEN 1

1973

10-11 a.m.

Apis mellifera LINNE 2

Melanostoma scalare FABRICIUS 2


Table 96 (p.99)

The activity of visitors before releasing (Prefecture south: B)

Year

Collecting hour

Species and number

1972

1973

1974

1975

10-11 a.m.

10-11 a.m.

10-11 a.m.

10-11 a.m.

  • 0

Hylemyia platura MEIGEN 2

Melanostoma scalare FABRICIUS 1

- 0



Table 93 (p.100)

The effect of utilization of Eristalis cerealis FABRICIUS in apple orchards (prefecture north: A)

Year

Condition

Examined trees

Examined cluster of flowers

Number of central flowers

Average fruition rate of central flower (%)

Side fruit

Average fruition rate of side fruit (%)

Rate of fruition of cluster of flowers

(%)

1973

Released orchard

3



















Non-released orchard for comparison

A

B

C

D


3

3

3

3



















1973

Released orchard

3



















Non-released orchard for comparison

A

C

D


3

3

3

3




















Table 94 (p.100)

The activity of visitors before releasing (prefecture centre: B)

Year

Collecting hour

Species

Total

1972

1-2 p.m.

Apis mellifera LINNE 3

Hylemyia platura MEIGEN 3

Pieris rapae crucivora BOISDUVAL 1

Calliphora lataCOQUILLETT 4

Melanostoma scalare FABRICIUS 4

Lucilia caesar INNE 3

Harmonia oxyridis PALLAS 1


19



1975

10-11 a.m.

Apis mellifera LINNE 2

Eristalis cerealis FABRICIUS 1

Melanostoma scalare FABRICIUS 1

Calliphora lata OQUILLETT 1


5


Table 95 (p.101)

The effect of Eristalis cerealis FABRICIUS in apple orchards (prefecture centre: B)

Year

Condition

Variety

Number of examined tree

Examined cluster of flowers

Number of central flowers

Rate of fruition of central flower (%)

Side flower

Average fruition rate of side flower (%)

Rate of fruition of cluster of flowers

1972

Released orchard

























Comparison orchard

A*

B

C

























1973

Released orchard

























Comparison orchard

A

B

C

























1974

Released orchard

























Released orchard


























1975

Released orchard

























Comparison orchard

A

B

C

























A*: Artificially pollinated orchard

Table 97 (p.102)

The effect of utilization of Eristalis cerealis FABRICIUS in apple orchards

(Prefecture south: C)

year

Condition

Variety

Number of examined trees

Number of clusters of flowers

Central flower

Rate of average fruition of central fruits (%)

Side fruits

Rate of average fruition of side fruits

(%)

Rate of fruition of flowers (%)

1972

Released orchard

























Comparison orchard

A

B

C

























1973

Released orchard

























Comparison orchard

A

B

C

























1974

Released orchard

























Comparison orchard

B

D

D

























1975

Released orchard

























Comparison orchard

A

B

C

D


























Table 98 (p.103)

The fruition of pips by utilization of Eristalis cerealis FABRICIUS in apple orchards

Area

Condition

Variety

Trees

Examined

central fruits

Expected pips

Number of pips

Average number of pips per fruit

Rate of pips against expected number of pips (%)

A

Prefecture south

Released orchard






















Comparison orchard

A

C























B

Prefecture centre

Released orchard






















Artificial pollination A
Comparison orchard

B

C






















C

Prefecture north

Released orchard






















Comparison orchard

A

B

C






















Table 99 (p.103)

The ultimate fruition of released orchards

Area

Condition

Variety

Number of examined trees

Number of examined branches

(5years old branch)

Number of fruits

Number of fruits per a branch

Nito

(A)

Released orchard
















Comparison orchard

A

B

C
















Morioka (B)

Released orchard
















Artificial pollination A
Comparison orchard

B

C
















Mizusawa C

Released orchard
















Comparison orchard

A

B

C
















Comparison orchard

A

B


















Table 100 (p.104)

The effect of fruition by utilization of Eristalis cerealis FABRICIUS in a wider area

(The first year, 1975)

Research No.

Variety

Examined tree

Average of total flowers

Number of fruits by central flower

The rate of fruits from

central flower (%)

Average number of fruits from side flower

Rate of average number of fruits from side flower (%)

Average fruits from clusters

Rate of average fruits from clusters (%)

Average of clusters without fruits

Rate of average of clusters without fruits (%)

Released orchard

A

B

C
D



































Non-released orchard



































Table 101 (p.104)

The effect of fruition by utilization of Eristalis cerealis FABRICIUS in a wider area

(The second year, 1976)

OrchardNo.

Variety

Examined tree

Total flowers

Number of central flowers

The rate of fruits from

central flower (%)

Number of fruits from side flower

Rate of fruits from side flower (%)

Number of fruits from clusters

Rate of fruits from clusters (%)

Released orchard

A

B

C
D




























Non-released orchard





























Figure 45 (p.105)

The comparison of fruition of central flowers between Eristalis cerealis FABRICIUS released orchards and non-released orchards

See translation in the text.
Chapter 4
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